The art (or arts) had been born since the human being`s expressions of external objects or interpretations inside the mind. In other words, art is the way of commentary of the world, done by human beings, social groups, and nations. The socio-cultural structure, personal skills and faculties determine the similarities, differences, or identicalness among these commentaries.

Some similarities in works of arts cannot be explained by coincidences. If it had been explained in that way, the result of history, mythology, sociology, anthropology, literature, and social sciences must be also explained by coincidences; as a result the socio-cultural life begin to be perceived as a chain of coincidences. Whereas socio-cultural life is not a ball of coincidences but it is the reality itself. Social reality is a conversional process to which social groups brought from history and continue by additional. From the scraps during this process that is “the art was born since the contradiction between the infinity desires of human and limited feasibilities he got”[1]. So “art is the combined expression of feelings and thoughts in an arrangement with harmony”[2].

Like many elements in socio-cultural life, art is closely related with some religious beliefs. Maybe since this relation, Fischer says, “The magic in the beginning, converted the religion, science and art as time past”[3].  In another place of his book, Fischer, by saying “human being is magician since the beginning”[4] he pays attention the importance of magic in socio-cultural life an also says the art is a “magic” in the beginning[5].

It is possible often to see at the data of sociological and anthological key studies in which religion and magic are playing crucial roles in rituals about human beings. For example, it is known that there is no social group without any restrictions. It is also accepted that the origin of restrictions is relation and religion beliefs like religion. So it is not very uncommon, the close religion between and art. Thus, it is very natural that the “ram head” stamps, we will talk about in detailed and we see the photos at the following, are carrying some religious identities.

It is possible often to see at the data of sociological and anthological key studies in which religion and magic are playing crucial roles in rituals about human beings. Even the for the artists, who seem behaving without religious beliefs during creation process of their works, it is possible to meet an aspect something like religious sense when focused closely.  The life of Van Gogh is the best example for this. By saying, “the priests and magicians of the religion are the same as creator artists and the function of art is to worship and tranquilize”[6]. Read shows the neighborhood between art and religion. In his other treatise, Read says, “Magic is the origin of science as well as that of religion”[7]. In another book it is said, “Byzantine art is religious art. In the beginning, the Christianity made Greco-Roman traditions continue essence in itself”[8], for highlighting the close relation between art and religion. The author of this paper is a sociologist. So he has no many things to say about this proposal. It seems impossible to not participating the idea above since these close relations. Consequently, it is necessary that there is a main difference between Eastern and Western Arts, originated from religion or religious thought.

So, there is a necessity  Eastern art in general and Turkish art in special, differently from Western art Painting, sculpture and ballet are the most common branches those coming to mind in West. The art have been used together with concept of beauty as it has been described by the concept of “aesthetics” to the extent “aesthetics” used instead of “art”. In Turkish art on the other hand as painting, sculpture are having small places; people have not adopted ballet even today. Yet, primarily art is close interest of people as it is traditional interest. The knowledge and practices of any people regarding art must be treated originally from their own socio-cultural history. But because we treat the art via Western way of logic the objects like horse wearing, kurgans, balbals, graves, handicrafts of women (including carpet, rug and felt) and yurts (circular Turkish tent made of felt) had not been seemed as problematic field by Turkish art historians. These artistic objects, for which the historical rugs can be extended through hundreds of years, abandoned to decay or the technology. For example the tombstones we saw in Ahlat and in central Bitlis abandoned face to face with their destinies. Especially the Ahlat tombstones, all of which are art traces, are in danger of annihilation I fear that the traditional carpets and rugs of Anatolia will disappear in the near future. Because the stamps describing a branch or a history are being tried to be change in the name of modernity. For examples the carpet weaver girls we saw in Nusaybin, were weaving carpets with rose figures, those are indefinite what they say, instead of using traditional stamps.

As a result “the top of European art hierarchy is occupied by figurative painting and sculpture”[9]. Maybe that is why the art used as “aesthetics” in West. In Turkish philosophy on the other hand harmonic, expressive, and descriptive characters have primarily important positions in art. Here the harmony among pieces and stamps is as important as the harmony in style of expression. At the photos on the following pages, it is possible to see the magic secret of adjustment among stamps. Because none of the stamps, on carpet-rugs and tombstones at the photos, calculated by ruler or pen but all of them made, depending upon traditional knowledge.


[1] MÜLAYİM, S., Sanata Giriş, İstanbul, 1994, p.19

[2] KARAMAĞARALI, H., “Sanat ve Kültür Münasebeti”, Kültür ve Sanat, İstanbul, 1980, p. 149

[3] FISCHER, E., Sanatın Gerekliliği (tran. C. Çapan), Ankara, 1993,p.35

[4] FISCHER, E., Ibid., p. 15

[5] FISCHER, E., Ibid., p. 13

[6] READ, H., Sanatın Anlamı (tran. G. İnal – N. Asgari), Ankara, 1960, pp.84-85

[7] READ, H., Sanatın Anlamı (tran. S. Mülayim), Ankara, 1960, s.84-85.

[8] TANSUĞ, S., Karşıtı Aramak, İstanbul, 1983 p.41.

[9] BURCKHARDT, T., Aklın Aynası (trans. V. Ersoy, İstanbul, p. 232