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Using of tamgas and producing of carpet-rugs is not a simple social activity; this reflects golden paces of social history of a nation or a social group. In other words, carpet-rug and tamgas in tombstones are book pages and historical facts saying a feeling, a socio-cultural life and a social history with the most common phrase, rather than an artwork. Namely, "it is clear that motif, figure, symbol and images are products of mentality and attitude in certain point of history[1]. For these documents were not write by official institution, they express the simplest feelings and thoughts. Therefore, history writers and workers in field of socio-cultural concepts must primarily evaluate ethnographic works such carpet-rugs and tombstones. Because they are the simplest historical records which not mixing with official feeling and information.

            Tamgas can be defined as alphabet of a language, historical heritage of social groups and intangible narrative in broad sense. For this reason tamgas are most important records that thay should be applied in socio-cultural researches. Forwhy tamgas express intangible world about people rather than referring to an object or objects.

Turk-Mongol peoples apply the notion of tamgas but there is no definite judgment about emerging of word. However, transforming of symbols and pictures on stones to tamgas is generally accepted. About this topic, Mulayim says that symbols transformed to lettering: "Various symbols drawing for connecting with other relatives have been seen from pre-historical times. Oldest communication type of this covenant is not lettering as generally known but is picture. Extremely simplified symbols will transform to lettering sc. alphabet after all".

An important part of tamgas, which used by Turks today and in the past rely on when there is no sense of the present lettering and various Turkic groups drew on stones since that time on. Some of these tamgas was first letters of Turkic alphabet but of course, symbols and tamgas significantly underwent to narrowing of meaning. Because symbols and tamgas express and on the other side letters describe a voice or a simple thing.

Although it is possible to accept some tamgas as symbols, as indicated above, tamgas and symbols are different. For example, every tamga is a symbol but not every symbol is a tamga. Ergo, a tamga is a seal, a special signature of families and tribes and a ownership indication; a symbol can be accepted as a sign, an indicator, a shape, a mark etc.

Now, the art is a perception style of world of a cultural group. Therefore, tamgas are extremely important documents for Turkic history. Because tamgas rose in the time of Turks did not know writing and they used by Turkic group as a mark from that time to nowadays. Besides this, some of these tamgas constituted first Turkic alphabet namely runic. On the other side, tamgas on carpet, rug and tombstone are some times lettering, sometimes rigging and sometimes as a status tool.

How that is there is an inheritance by DNA in biology, DNA of socio-cultural life is tamgas and they always exist with us. They can be seen in ethnographic works of a social group in the most obvious forms. These tamgas used by people, are almost password, which open of the history of social groups and are independent from spoken language in routine life. That language is separate expressing language based on tamgas and is separate communication tool. Even language of tamgas is always before language of ABC (about writing). For example, kids learn to give voice firstly. After that, facial expressions and hand movements begin. At last, kids begin to learn symbols of voice or tamgas.



[1] MÜLAYİM, S., "Tanımsız Figürlerin İkonografisi", Türk Soylu Halkların Halı, Kilim ve Cicim Sanatı (Uluslararası Bilgi Şöleni Bildirileri, 27-31 Mayıs Kayseri), Ankara, 1998, s, 222.

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