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The graves in this region are generally as family graves. These graves give important Ito the scientists for socio-cultural researches. Because the most hard and conservation parts or a tradition are born, marriage, and death and funeral. Kazakhstan Turks, who are base of our study, were affected mostly from Russian culture and communism. Kazak Turks worked in same place, worked for the same party, and even married with the Russian people. But the grave yards are exactly separated. Even of the married couples to the Turkish cemetery. The graves of Jews are together with the Christian partner, but the grave of Jew decorated with zion star and the one of partner is with cross. In some small accommodation areas the cemo0tary divided into two; Turks to one side and Russians to the other.

 

The forms of the graves give information to even the people who know nothing about this. On the Turkish graves there are sickle-hammer-, red star (nowadays being removed), crescent, ram-head and crescent-star stamps, On the Russian graves, on the other hand, the stamps are sickle ,hammer, red star, and cross. The grave of the Kontav town, which is established by Russians (30 kms to -views town Turkestan), is something like shouting to Russians. The graves along this road are decorated with crescent, crescent-star, and ram-head or ram-head stamps. They are like shouting to travelers Turkish identity and Islam. The graves which can not be seen from the road are very simple; there are only two stones at the foot and head if grave .even there is nothing on some of them. In Turkestan.-Yesi cemetery, it is possible to see figure of the "turbe" of the Hodja Ahmet yesevi at the tombstones (it can be less seen at every cemetery in Kazakhstan).

 

The specification of the tombstones in Kazakhstan is the "kulgu taş" which is a stone which is dimensloned 25 cm X 4 cm and height 1.m, with ram-head. Although the graves changes from Almatı through Casplan Sea, there is "kulgu taş" on every grave.

 

Mangışlak region is known to be one of the most important settlements of Teke Turcomans. The oldest remained since IX century. There are also Schytion in this cemetery. (You can see some of them on photos). The grave of Koçkar Ata is also in Akşukar cemetery. According  to common belief Koçkar Ata is also in Akşukar cemetery. According to common belief Koçkar Ata is from Teke turcomans. In his time the people were making the rams fought and since his ram was being champion of each mathc, he named as Koçkar. His real name is not to be known. After koçkar Ata`s death, his ram could not resist the separation and it dead. Then it graved over his grave. So a ram statue had been put oover koçkur Ata`s grave. Theree is scripture in Arabic alphabet as "ya Allah, ya Muhammed, ya Ali"

 

From Issık köl to Aral, and to Mangışlak; another property of graves is their Seljukian Gümbets "dome-like sstructres". Near Tokmak city of Kyrgyzistan, the graves in balasagum (birth place of Yusuf Has Hacib) are also in the  form of Seljukid Gümbets.

 

The interesting aspects of the tomb of Hoca Ahmet Yesevi, is the original leopard-head like mallet of its door, and its positioning on a "tör" place. As known, "tör" place is the first sunlight recleving place of the land, called by old Turks (in Anatolia "baş köşe" (main corner), then used for the just opposite of the door of the guest-room of the homes. The "tör" corner is a distinguished place. Only the father of the home and guests can sit there and only the khatun mother of the home) can clean up there.

 

In Kazakhstan national muscum, there are earthenware ram-heads, one ram tombstone and a bronze cauldron over which there are three "koçkar" head. On the other hand, I,n Kazakhstan there are ram-heads over many tombs. There are several ramüğ-headsii ram-headed tombstones and several historiacal traces in Otrar (Farab), Jambul, Taşkent, Bishkok, mucus, Bakü and etc. There is a ram-head, probably brought two hundred years ago, from Altay region, at Raimbek tomb of Almaty. There are two big rastatues, distance between which is 3 kms, at the 40th km of Bishkek-Almaty road. Also there is a ram-statue at the region of Orkhun monuments.

 

The studies about ram-statues at Mşinusinsk of Altay region, serves important information to us. Barisonko and Khudyakov, who known with their studies on this field, says: "the stone-made statue complexes, of human and animals, like, ram, sheep, lion, and horse, are one of basic traces of old turks. These types of monuments firstly founded in 1722 by D.G. Messersidt and F.I. Stralenberg in Minusinsk region." Stralenberg expresses these are cult of Minusinsk Tartars. Chinese sources say these belong to Turks and classify rram-sheep-horse, and human body statues within the period 100 BC-1000 AC[1].

 

Shortly it will be more relevant to search the origins of the ram head statues in older ages of known Turkish history, rather than Akkoyunlus and Karakoyunlus. Because the information on hand direct us towards there.

 

Bibliography

[1] BORİSENKO, A.Y., - KHUDYAKOV, Y, S., "Orta Yenisey de Eski Türklerin Anıtları", Uluslar arası Sibirya Smepozyumu (Haz.., V.i. Molodin), Novosbirsk), 1998, s. 51-53

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